Werkbund
The Werkbund was an organisation established in Germany in 1907 as a meeting place for progressive manufacturers, architects and designers cooperating with industry. Its main aim was to design objects for mass production that would also have artistic value.
In the interwar period the Werkbund became involved in a project whose aim was to solve the housing problem at the time. It did so by tackling the difficult task of creating a programme for construction of affordable and small flats for mass consumers. This programme was to give a quick fix to the housing needs of the countries suffering the consequences of war. Throughout Europe such model housing estates were created, however, it was in Germany where this trend was the most prominent. They worked on a new living space layout, its better use, whilst lowering the construction cost of a single flat. The best way to achieve the lowest possible cost was to reduce the size of the flat.

New rules of modern housing architecture were largely determined by the German Werkbund. Herman Muthesius, who was one of the founders of this organisation, proclaimed an agenda for modern architecture: “More content and less art”.

Bauhaus
The designer-engineers of the time had to meet new requirements which led to fundamental changes in the education system. In 1919 Walter Gropius founded a school, Bauhaus, based in Weimar, and later in Dessau and Berlin, whose main goal was to educate new generations of modern designers and engineers. Their future task was to solve issues concerning healthy and rational housing architecture.
In his theory and the organisational rules of Bauhaus from 1923, Walter Gropius wrote: “Over the last few generations architecture has become (…) decorative (…). In its decadence (…) it has lost its link with new technologies and materials (…). We want to create bright and organic architecture (…). We want architecture to be adapted to our world of machines, radio and fast cars: architecture resulting from a transparent and functional approach to forms”

The Ring. At the turn of 1924 in Berlin, in the office of Mies van der Rohe, a group called “The Ring of Ten” was formed. Later on, in 1926 it was joined by other members and thus renamed “The Ring”. At the time it was the elite of German architects including among others, Hans Scharoun and Adolf Rading. The members of the group promoted new rules of modern architecture: they fought against tradition, historicism and eclecticism and in particular they were against decorating buildings with characteristic, old, historical styles.

CIAM
The International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM – Les Congres Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne) was founded in 1928 in Switzerland in “La Sarraz” castle. It become known as an excellent environment and platform for even the most avant-garde architects to freely exchange their views.
Members of this organisation met periodically at congresses where they discussed important topics concerning modern architecture and urban planning.
The second congress in Frankfurt am Main (1929) was significant to the development of the concept of a modern flat. It was accompanied by the exhibition “A Flat for the Existential Minimum”. The exhibition presented projects of small flats from existing housing estates in different European countries: among others from Księże Małe in Wrocław.
In 1930, rational construction methods were the main topic of the 3rd CIAM Congress in Brussels, where the participants argued over the optimal height of urban dwelling-houses.

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